Remedies available within a particular system are closely connected with the types and diversity of disputes brought to, and with the purpose and the structure of, the special dispute settlement mechanism. Investment arbitration is a mechanism for settlement of disputes between States and foreign investors who have made by definition mid- to long-term projects in the State concerned. Such claims are brought for the protection of private interests of investors, but they are mostly based on public international law obligations and subject to State responsibility principles. Institutional and procedural rules, as well as systemic features of investment arbitration play an important role in the determination of which remedies are available and provide suitable relief within this dispute settlement mechanism. The main argument of this article is that substantive characteristics of primary obligations should be taken into account, along with procedural considerations, in the determination of which remedies are available in investment treaty arbitration.